home         about the journal         archive         editorial team         submissions         guidelines for authors         copyright info         subscriptions and orders

TOMUL 10 (54), 2020

CONSTANTIN I. CIOBANU
De la cercetarea profeţiilor înţelepţilor Antichităţii din pictura murală a mănăstirii Cetăţuia la studiul erminiilor greceşti anterioare perioadei de alcătuire a Cărţii de pictură a lui Dionisie din Furna

Résumé
De la recherche des prophéties des sages de l’Antiquité dans la peinture murale du monastère de Cetățuia jusqu’à l’étude des herminies grecques, plus anciennes que le Livre de peinture de Denys de Fourna. 
Il y a près d’un siècle, sur les pages des actes présentés au Congrès de byzantinologie de Bucarest de 1924, a été publiée l’étude de Vasile Grecu Darstellungen altheidnischer Denker und Schriftsteller in der Kirchenmalerei des Morgenlandes (Les représentations des anciens penseurs et écrivains païens dans la peinture des pays de l’Orient). La recherche présentée par Vasile Grecu au congrès abordait le problème – peu étudié à l’époque – du contenu et des sources des soi-disant « prophéties » des sages de l’Antiquité et des sibylles des peintures murales et des anciens manuscrits roumains. Si, dans le cas de la Moldavie du XVIe siècle, le byzantinologue roumain s’est limité à établir – autant que possible – la translittération, la traduction et l’origine des textes slaves des phylactères des philosophes peints aux églises de Saint-Georges de Suceava, de Moldovița, de Voroneț et de Sucevița, alors, dans le cas de la Moldavie du XVIIe siècle, le même byzantinologue a réussi à découvrir les anciennes traductions roumaines du recueil de «paroles» grecques des penseurs de l’Antiquité représentés dans le registre inférieur de l’énorme composition à l’image de l’Arbre de Jessé du narthex de l’église des saints Pierre et Paul du monastère de Cetățuia. Il s’est avéré que ce recueil fait partie de la soi-disant variante τ des paroles des sages de l’Antiquité. Plus tard, on a découvert que dans les peintures murales de l’église de Saint-Nicolas de Tsaritsani (Grèce, Thessalie), la même variante des paroles des sages a été utilisée. Mais la version de Tsaritsani contenait également deux «dits» qui ne faisaient pas partie de la variante τ, mais appartenaient à la variante μ (selon la classification d’Hartmut Erbse). Comment s’explique ce phénomène assez étrange – et sans précédent dans les sélections murales grecques de «prophéties» des anciens des Balkans et de la Roumanie – où l’appartenance des sélections à une seule et même variante (que ce soit δ, μ ou τ) est absolument exclusive ? La publication récente sur l’Internet de facsimilés de livres de peinture grecs pré-modernes – qui sont différents par rapport à la célèbre herminie de Denys de Furna – et les publications des dernières années de chercheurs grecs qui ont étudié, décrit et reproduit certains manuels de peinture post-byzantine des collections d’Athènes ou du Mont Athos, ont considérablement enrichi et modifié les données du problème. Ainsi, l’introduction dans l’équation Cetățuia-Țarițani de deux de ces manuels – du manuscrit Add MS 40726 de la collection du British Museum et du manuscrit grec no. 259, conservé au monastère de Saint-Pantéleimon du Mont Athos – a considérablement facilité la réponse concernant la sélection hétérogène de « paroles » des anciens de Tsaritsani.
Keywords: Cetățuia Monastery, the Church of St. Nicholas in Tsaritsani, Dionysius of Furna, The First Manuscript from Jerusalem, Painting Book, the Wise Men of Antiquity, Vasile Grecu.

Text integral | Full text article 

MARINA SABADOS
Matei, un zugrav moldovean de la mijlocul secolului al XVIII-lea 

Résumé 
L’article se propose d’identifier la personnalité artistique d’un zôgraphe d’icônes et d’iconostases, à partir de l’icône patronale Présentation de la Vierge au Temple de l’iconostase de l’ancienne église en bois de Putna (dép. de Suceava), signée et datée en 1760, lui attribuant par conséquent la peinture de toute une iconostase inédite trouvée dans une autre église en bois à Ciolpani (dép. de Bacău), dont l’icône royale du Sauveur est aussi signée et datée, cette fois-ci en 1763.
Si on connaît le commanditaire de l’icône patronale de l’église en bois de Putna, l’hégoumène Vartolomei Mazereanu, et son goût artistique pour la peinture d’icônes russes et ruthènes, en ce qui concerne l’iconostase de Ciolpani, récemment apportée dans l’église en bois restaurée aux années 2000, on n’en connaît ni le commanditaire ni même sa place d’origine (on connaît seulement le vocable de l’église d’origine, d’après l’icône royale de l’extrémité droite, Saints Pierre et Paul). Tout de même, dans les deux cas, on ne saurait négliger la manière de la peinture ukrainienne qui caractérise l’oeuvre du zôgraphe Matthieu au sujet des icônes royales. Cette remarque est renforcée par le thème iconographique de l’icône au-dessous de l’icône royale de l’extrémité gauche, Saint Joannice le Grand, qui représente les deux fondateurs de la Laure des Grottes de Kiev, les saints Antoine Petchersky et Théodose Petchersky. Ces particularités permettent d’avancer l’hypothèse qui attribue l’éducation de ce zôgraphe dans un des ateliers ruthènes, même de Kiev. Quant aux icônes des fêtes, de la Grande Déisis et des prophètes, celles-ci restent ancrées dans la tradition postbyzantine, ce qui confirme l’appartenance de Matthieu à l’école moldave de peinture.
Keywords: icon, iconostasis, wooden church, Moldavian icon painting, Ukrainian icon painting

Text integral | Full text article 

ADRIAN-SILVAN IONESCU
Horaţiu Dimitriu, o personalitate artistică şi culturală uitată

Résumé
Horaţiu Dimitriu (1890–1926) était un artiste ayant de nombreuses préoccupations. Sa carrière, très courte, s’est déroulée au long de 20 ans, symétriquement distribuée d’un côté et de l’autre d’un axe représenté par la Grande Guerre : formé et affirmé avant 1914 et arrivé à sa maturité, après 1916. Il a fait partie des artistes affiliés, en 1917, au Grand Quartier Général, ayant comme but d’exécuter des peintures inspirées par les combats et l’évolution de la guerre. Mais il ne s’est pas fait remarquer dans ce groupe et il n’a non plus participé à l’exposition organisée par ses camarades, en janvier 1918. En échange, il a élaboré des projets pour des timbres-poste et monnaies divisionnaires en papier. Ensuite, il a collaboré avec des portraits de souverains, d’hommes politiques et de militaires importants du moment, dans les pages du périodique Neamul Românesc. Artiste graphique d’une grande force, pratiquant non seulement l’art du chevalet, mais également la graphique appliquée, promoteur de la gravure en bois ou linoléum, peintre sensible, amoureux des couleurs du paysage de sa patrie, illustrateur de presse quotidienne, caricaturiste inspiré et virulent, chercheur intéressé par la reconstitution de la vie de Theodor Aman, son illustre prédécesseur, Horaţiu Dimitriu a créé entre deux époques, en marquant par son oeuvre et son existence fulgurante une période de grandes transformations. Mais, trop tôt disparu, il fut vite et injustement oublié.
Keywords: World War I, woodcut, linocut, King Ferdinand, Queen Marie, General Henri M. Berthelot, Theodor Aman

Text integral | Full text article 

RALUCA ALEXANDRU PARTENIE
Moda vestimentară din perioada interbelică, o expresie a modernităţii

Abstract
The Roaring Twenties were an era of modernity and youthful daring spirit. Having gained new freedoms in civil rights and lifestyle, women assumed a great freedom in clothing as well: they adopted a revolutionary fashion, wearing short skirts and hairstyles, hiding their feminine attributes in loose-fitting dresses and adopting a boyish look. Designers were creating exquisite dresses and accessories, in luxurious fabrics with spectacular Art Deco patterns. The exuberant Queen Marie and the stylish Crown Princess Elena were at the center of Romanian fashion.
The Great Depression and the rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe brought a decade marked by difficulties and political turmoil. Interesting phenomena emerge from the interference of fashion and political ideologies, art movements or the film industry. In the ’30s, fashion returned to a more traditional feminine look, but the innovative spirit continued with the increasing popularity of feminine pants, and, in the textile industry, with the creation and spread of new artificial fibers. Men’s suit became more and more loose-fitting, evolving into the exaggerated forms of the 30s gangster style and ’40s zoot suit (named, in Romania, the “malagambist” style). For both men and women, clothing became much more comfortable; sportswear was an important part of the wardrobe, as the lifestyle became more active and sporty.
Keywords: Romanian interwar fashion, flapper style, surreal fashion, '20s fashion, 30s fashion

Text integral | Full text article 

NIYATEE SHINDE
Photography in India

Abstract. Photography arrived in India soon after its invention in the 1840s, due to the colonial occupation. As with everywhere else it was used to photograph temples and monuments, archaeological and architectural sites, customs and tribes, but in India it was primarily employed to unravel the mystic and mysterious attractions of India and to document its vastness. Photography impacted the social and aesthetic life of the country in many ways. India had an age-old tradition, dating back to thousands of years, in miniature painting. Court life, religious themes, battles and social activities were meticulously painted with fine haired brushes and mineral ground paints. Photography presented a dilemma to this exquisite art of recording. The article traces the history of photography in India, offering insights into its integration into the milieu as well as the impact on the miniaturists with charming images.
Keywords: early Indian photography, 19th century images, Raja Deen Dayal

Text integral | Full text article 
 

CORINA TEACĂ
Ionel Jianu şi sculptura modernă

Abstract
The article analyses some aspects of Ionel Jianou’s activity in France since 1960s. As an immigrant in France, Jianou tried to earn his living by writing on arts. The initial rejection of some French editors determined him to establish his own publishing house. His monograph about Brancusi, the first book he wrote and edited in France, opened up a series of writings dedicated to the modern sculpture.
Keywords: modern sculpture, Ionel Jianou, art history, Romanian diaspora in France

Text integral | Full text article 

N O T E   Ș I   DOCUMENTE

SIMION CÂLȚIA
Prima decoraţie pentru merite artistice: medalia Bene Merenti

Abstract
The article aims to analyse the first decoration of the Kingdom of Romania intended to reward artistic merits and cultural activity: the Bene Merenti Medal. Special attention was paid to the European context, as well as to Western practices (especially from France and Germany) regarding the recognition of culture through honorary distinctions. The research points out the significance of the moment of its creation – culture being, after the army, the second field that benefits from its own distinction – and examines the medal from a legislative and aesthetic perspective.
The second part of the article focuses on the use of the medal. Analysing a significant number of awards, the study tries to answer several questions: what were the categories of merits for which the medal is awarded, and what was the place of the visual arts among them? What were the reasons for the decision to decorate an artist? What was the place of medal in the “cursus honorum” of Romanian artists? In the end, an annex brings together the artists for whom it could be established with certainty that they received the Bene Merenti Medal.
Keywords: Bene Merenti Medal, artistic merits, European influence, bestowal

Text integral | Full text article 

STELUŢA BOROGHINĂ
Generalul Gheorghe Băgulescu şi colecţia sa de artă extrem-orientală

Abstract
General Gheorghe Bagulescu’s art collection and his Sino-Japanese art collection. We will present the sinuous history of an important Far Eastern art collection, gathered in the Interwar Period by a less known art collector in today’s Romania, yet acknowledged abroad: Gheorghe Bagulescu’s art collection.
An erudite and an art lover, Gheorghe Bagulescu has combined the undisputed literary merits, the diplomatic career and the art collector-connoisseur vocation. The passion for the Far Eastern history, philosophy and art has been reflected, thanks to his literary talent, in the novel Yamato Damashii, as well as in the determination with which he has built his art collection, becoming one of the most important and respected Far Eastern art collector in the world.
The history of this art collection is intertwining with his personal history, marked by the tribulations of his military and diplomatic career. We are witnessing several unprecedented aspects: the Far Eastern art-collecting objects during his mission as a military attaché in Japan, bringing them into to the country and displaying them at the Romanian Athenaeum between 1939-1940, the donation of his art collection to the Romanian state, the withdrawal of this donation, thus Romania losing the chance to have a museum dedicated to Far Eastern art.
After the war, the art collection accompanies General Bagulescu in his exile and subsequently becomes part of an international disputed inheritance. A large part is exhibited at the Menton Museum, another part is found in the Far Eastern Art Gallery at the National Museum of Art of Romania, some of the objects had been exhibited at the British Museum, and others had been spread out in private art collection.
This work is a plea to restore in the contemporary conscience, the memory of a refined Romanian connoisseur of the Sino-Japanese art and of his unique art collection in Romania. As with the future opening of the Far Eastern Art Gallery at the National Museum of Art of Romania, we are hoping to see an exhibition that would bear the name of Bagulescu, the art collector.
Keywords: General Gheorghe Bagulescu, connoisseur, art collection, Far-Eastern art, museum

Text integral | Full text article

CRONICA

Proiectul cultural Valentina Rusu Ciobanu – o sută de ani de la naștere (cu un rezumat în limba engleză) (Constantin I. Ciobanu), p. 151

Expoziția Paul Calle’s Life of Exploration: From the Mountains to the Moon, Western Spirit: Scottsdale’s Museum of the West, Scottsdale, Arizona, 19 febr. 2019–11 oct. 2020 (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 170

Expoziția Renoir père et fils. Peinture et cinéma, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 6 noiembrie 2018–27 ianuarie 2019 (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 175

Expoziţia Constantin Daniel Rosenthal (1820–1851): un artist în vremea revoluţiei, București, Muzeul Naţional de Artă al României, 24 septembrie 2020 – 21 februarie 2021 (Ioana Apostol, Eduard Andrei), p. 181

Soldații la expoziție sau „Sub flamura lui ’48” (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 186

Expoziția Fighting for Visibility. Women Artists in the Nationalgalerie before 1919, Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, octombrie 2019 – martie 2020 (Ramona Caramelea), p. 189

Ediția a XVI-a a Sesiunii anuale de comunicări științifice Date noi în cercetarea artei medievale și premoderne din România (București, 4-5 decembrie 2019) (Dep. de artă medievală), p. 193

Texte integrale | Full text articles

RECENZII

Κωνσταντίνος Μ. Βαφειάδης, Εγχειρίδια ζωγραφικής στο Βυζάντιο Η μαρτυρία του κώδικος Ι.Μ. Παντελεήμονος 259. Ἔκδοση, κριτικὸ ὑπόμνημα καὶ σχολιαμσμός, Andy’s Publishers, Αθήναι 2017/ Vapheiades M. Constantinus, Tractationes byzantinae de picturae. Testimonium codicis Panteleimoniensis Gr. 259. Editio, apparatus criticus et adnotatio, Athenae MM XVIΙ, 269 p. (Elisabeta Negrău), p. 201

Корпус на стенописите от първата половина на XIX век в България / Corpus of mural paintings from the first half of the 19th century in Bulgaria, Union Académique Internationale. Corpora of Pre-Modern Christian Orthodox Mural Paintings 3, Institute of Art Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 2018, 898 p. (Elisabeta Negrău), p. 204

ROBERT OUSTERHOUT, Eastern Medieval Architecture. The Building Traditions of Byzantium and Neighboring Lands (Onassis Series in Hellenic Culture), Oxford University Press, USA (2019), 783 p. (Elisabeta Negrău), p. 206 

ANA IACOB, Avangarda fotografilor din București. Repertoriul fotografiilor din patrimoniul Muzeului Municipiului București – Secolul XIX, Ed. Muzeului Municipiului București, București, 2015, 182 p. + il. (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 209

ADRIANA BOTEZ-CRAINIC, Ladea, Monitorul Oficial, București, 2017 (400 p. cu ilustr. alb-negru, note, bibliografie, index de nume; sumar și prefață și în limba franceză, trad. Luminița Brăileanu) (Eduard Andrei), p.212

RODICA BUZOIANU, EDUARD ANDREI, OANA FLORICĂ, Patrimoniu cultural revizitat: Simpozionul de ceramică Medgidia, fenomen fondator al ceramicii românești contemporane, Bucureşti, Asociaţia UMA ED ROMÂNIA, 2019 (306 p., ediţie bilingvă română-engleză, cu ilustr. alb-negru şi color, note, bibliografie; trad. în engleză Crina Cranta, design grafic Lavinia Vereş) (Ioana Apostol), p. 214

RON TYLER, Western Art, Western History. Collected Essays, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2019, 300 p. + il. (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 217

FLORICA CRUCERU, DANA POSTOLACHE, IOAN DARIDA, Dicționarul artiștilor din spațiul românesc, 1700–1920, Ed. ACS, București, 2019, vol. I, 728 pag., vol. II, 708 pag. + il. (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 225

PHOTORESEARCHER, No. 34, 2020. IN FOCUS: Photography in Romania, Guest Editor: Adrian-Silvan Ionescu, 104 p. + il. (Aurelian Stroe), p. 227

Texte integrale | Full text articles 

DE LIBRIS 
Buletin bibliografic 2019–2020 (V.B., A,S.I.)

IN MEMORIAM

MARIUS JOACHIM TĂTARU (8 ianuarie 1947 Sibiu – 20 aprilie 2020 Heilbronn, Germania) (autor: Ioana Vlasiu), p. 237